1. Please describe the characteristics of past and future managers. Past Managers
Future Managers
Primary role
Order giver, privileged elite, manipulator, controller
Facilitator, team member, teacher, advocate, sponsor, coach, partner
Learning and knowledge
Periodic learning, narrow specialist
Continuous life-long learning, generalist with multiple specialties
Compensation criteria
Time, effort, rank
Skills, results
Cultural orientation
Monocultures, monolingual
Multicultural, multilingual
Primary source of influence
Formal authority
Knowledge (technical and interpersonal)
View of people
Potential problem
Primary resource
Primary communication
Decision-making style
Limited input for individual decisions
Broad-based input for joint decisions
Ethical considerations
Nature of interpersonal relationships
Competitive( win-lose)
Handling of power and key information
Hoard and restrict access
Share and broaden access
Approach to change
2. The competing values framework (CVF) provides a practical way for managers to understand, measure and change organizational culture. Discuss the culture types of the CVF.
Clan Culture
A clan culture has an internal focus and values flexibility rather than stability and control. It resembles a family-type organization in which effectiveness is achieved by encouraging collaboration between employees. This type of culture is very “employee-focused” and strives to instill cohesion through consensus and job satisfaction and commitment through employee involvement. Clan organizations devote considerable resources to hiring and developing their employees, and they view customers as partners.Adhocracy Culture
An adhocracy culture has an external focus and values flexibility. As demonstrated in the chapter-opening case on Apple, this type of culture fosters the creation of…

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