1 ) The inquiry “Should Nike switch from a focal point on famous persons to a focal point on its merchandises in its advertising” is a authoritative illustration of a direction determination job where a peculiar job facing the direction of a company ( Nike in this instance ) and they are so required to do a determination of what class of action to prosecute.

Clearly in this instance it is a really of import determination and it may find the continued future success of the company and so it would be folly to do it based on an sentiment or a educated conjecture and so it is critical that the footing of the determination that is made is the robust. dependable and comparative consumer information informations and Market Research is the agencies of geting this information and organizing the right determination way.

In this essay Market Research has been defined as the followers by the American Marketing Association on the website ESOMAR Marketing Glossary hypertext transfer protocol: //www. esomar. org/index. php/glossary-m. hypertext markup language ( 2007 ) : “The systematic and nonsubjective designation. aggregation. analysis and airing of information for the intent of bettering determination devising related to the designation and solution of jobs and chances in selling. ”It is farther defined by the European Society for sentiment and Marketing Research as: ”A cardinal component within the entire field of marketing information.

It links the consumers. clients and the populace to sellers through information which is used to place and specify selling chances and jobs ; to bring forth. refine and measure selling actions ; and to better apprehension of selling as a procedure and of the ways in which the particular selling activities can be made more effectual. ” ( Malhotra 2006. p6 ) So in order to reply the inquiry ab initio raised it will be necessary to transport out appropriate Marketing Research. The aim of any research done will be to obtain a organic structure of information/data that is sufficient to let the Nike Management Board to do an informed and considered determination.

In order for the decision-maker ( Nike ) to hold the assurance to make this the information presented to them by Market Research must be of a certain defined quality and measure that meets some of the undermentioned standards: Accurate – information should be valid and reliableCurrent –
Information should be as up to day of the month as possibleSufficient – The sum of information available. more gives a better pictureAvailable – The information must be easy accessible and interpretableRelevant – The type and format of information demands to do sense to the decision-makerOf all of these factors listed above the most of import is ‘Relevant’ because the information obtained must be targeted at the peculiar determination that needs to be made. Having a concise database of how many MP3 participants were bought in the UK in the last 2 old ages will hold no bearing at all on the direction determination job posed to Nike regardless of how accurate and complete this database is.

So it is of import for Market Research to be done to help Nike in their determination and it is every bit of import that the research is focused on the peculiar market field that the determination is based upon ( in this instance the Athletic pes ware market ) and that the information so obtained is accurate. current. sufficient and easy available.

The function of Marketing Research in supplying this support to the selling determination shaper can be summarised as assisting them to understand: The nature and range of mark market ( s ) The forces that shape the selling systemHow to measure selling mix variableHow to measure success and failures of selling determinations ( Malhotra 2006. p6 ) This support is done by explicating an appropriate Marketing Research Design. This is a scheme that defines the peculiar selling research attempts to be made and how they will be conducted. For the Nike state of affairs the undermentioned design is recommended in the undermentioned phases.

Exploratory Research – It is recommended that a series of focal point groups are conducted which involve gross revenues employees working in retail mercantile establishments for Athletic footwear ( including Nike shops ) . These Focus groups should be carried out in the states which have been identified as cardinal Nike markets. this should include ( but should non needfully be limited to ) : The USA. UK. Germany. Japan and China and should be carried out across these states so that any regional fluctuations can be taken into considered. Each of the focal point groups should dwell of 8 – 12 persons.

The conducting of these focal point groups and the associated treatment that they will promote will enable Nike research workers to derive value penetrations into perceived client behavior and should assist to find some chief drivers for why clients buy athletic places. It will let the research workers to organize an apprehension of client human ecology and their motives. involvements and attitudes.

The Market Research aim is to set up some associated rules of human decision-making and the function of societal influence. The inquiry could so be posed. what sort of advertizement run would outdo entreaty to the bulk of the client ( realised and possible ) base? This chief inquiry begs a figure of associated inquiries: What is of import to clients when publicizing trade name? What influence do famous person indorsements have on perceptual experience of a trade name? It would besides be of benefit to specify some of the standards that is used by consumers when measuring and choosing footwear. Is it foot support? Comfort? Design? Fashion? Price? Or are at that place other elements involved? New thoughts can be developed and discovered e. g. people looking for places specially designed for peculiar athletics like football or dance. All the information obtained by this series of focal point groups could be used as a platform for future selling scheme determinations. However by transporting out a focal point group merely a little sample is being considered which sometimes can be unrepresentative of the population and therefore non demo the a true image of researched phenomena.

The following measure of the market research design implemented should be an analysis of the information that. has been obtained ( and collated ) and from this to pull decisions in order to plan an effectual quantitative survey which in bend will be taking to corroborate the original findings of the focal point group exercising. With this information it will be possible to go through on to the following phase of the research design.

At this point the following measure of the full scheme will be to transport out Conclusive research. This will do usage of descriptive research. farther classified as a multiple cross-sectional design where the information obtained would be capable to quantitative analysis. Surveys will be a method of carry oning the research. Surveies should be carried out in different states – the same 1s where the focal point groups where conducted and the surveyed population would be aged 15+ . Surveies would enable the market research workers to hold a much larger representative sample and should hopefully corroborate the findings obtained from the original focal point group exercising.

If the quantitative research was carried out foremost so it may non be possible to acquire a full apprehension of motives and the values of athletic footwear clients. It could besides be misdirecting and the information provided could miss of relevancy and truth. It is of import to be cognizant of the assorted different research mistakes which have the possible to cut down the truth and quality of the research findings and which may besides be non representative of the population being assessed. Therefore it is critical to carry on research utilizing at least two different research techniques to do certain that effects of mistakes are minimised and to authorise the apprehension of consumers.

2 ) When sing the purchasing behavior of consumer when they are buying athletic footwear there are a figure of different factors and issues that need to be accounted for. Consumer purchasing behavior is a determination procedure which acts upon the people involved in purchasing and utilizing the merchandises in inquiry. Purchases are farther influenced by such things as personal. psychological. and societal issues. A good market research worker would analyze the idea procedure undergone by consumers. compare it with their demographic informations. and utilize the ensuing information to market their merchandises. ( Armstrong et al. 2005 ) .

In order to make this the usage of secondary informations is required. Increasing athleticss engagement is the key to growing in the market. Price is non a driver. Peoples who are active athleticss participants are much less motivated by monetary value than by the quality of a merchandise. In marketing athletic footwear. the accent should be on public presentation and manner elements of merchandises instead than on the monetary value. Interestingly. to consumers. lower monetary values can perceivably intend lower value and quality of merchandises. The most of import decision from articles is that there is a clear displacement by consumers from insouciant athletic places to manner designs for insouciant. The design and comfort are more of import than the public presentation of places. Harmonizing to Harris Interactive SportTainment ( 2001 ) people who participate in athletics activities buy merchandises that enhance their public presentation and enjoyment of the activity. but clearly. 95 % of footwear buyers over the last twelvemonth cited manner as a cardinal factor in their merchandise choices. Performance was 2nd with 94 % of footwear buyers. So. while beauty is non a primary driver of athleticss engagement. it is an of import motivation drive footwear purchases. Footwear was purchased more frequently at featuring goods shops ( 34 % ) . proshops ( 30 % ) . and price reduction shops ( 23 % ) .

The consequences of Customer Focus ( R ) 2004: Sporting Goods survey reveals that monetary value and choice motivate consumer purchases more than quality. Merely 9 % felt that quality would actuate them to shop at an athletic footwear forte shop. “When buying athletic footwear at a forte shop. choice has the greatest influence on a shopper’s behaviour. ” said Therese Mulvey. frailty president selling research at Vertis. The consequences of the survey show that consumers want picks and assortment at a good monetary value. A cardinal tool in act uponing purchasing behaviour is publicizing inserts and Customer Focus can supply counsel on the best manner to utilize media synergistically. Vertis ( 2004 ) .

3 ) The direction determination job for the Nike is: Should their traditional advertisement run scheme be maintained or should it be changed in order to for Nike to retain their place as the market leader? 4 ) The selling research job is: How effectual is the current advertisement run scheme and is their range for developing or altering it in order to do it more effectual? To reply our direction job it is of import to measure effectivity of our current run and how we can do it more effectual. Marketing research job allow the research worker to obtain all information needed to turn to the direction determination job.

5 ) Based on the market research required to turn to the direction determination job for Nike the undermentioned research inquiries have been
formulated: Research Question 1 – What are clients concerned more about when doing purchasing determinations ; the manner facet or the product’s public presentation? Directional Hypothesis: H0: The manner index is non more of import than the product’s public presentation index.

H1: The manner index is more of import than the product’s public presentation index.

Research inquiry 2 – Do famous person indorsements. in relation to a merchandise. in advertisement have an influence on client purchasing behavior? Non-directional Hypothesis: H0: The famous person indorsements do non hold an influence on client purchasing behavior.

H1: The famous person indorsements in adverts have influence on client purchasing behavior.

6 ) The following three major beginnings of data/research in respects to the athletic footwear market. which provide elaborate information that. can be used to measure the UK market. have been identified as followers: Sports Fashion – UK – October 2006This provides monthly information on the province of the UK Sports manner retail market detailing tendencies and foretelling future market developments.

After a period of success and enlargement during the mid- to late-1990s. the athleticss vesture and footwear market has been pitched into a period of stagnating gross revenues. falling monetary values and really rapid consolidation.

The market has been convulsed late by the rise of Sports World – once Sports Soccer – which has led the concluding unit of ammunition of consolidation among the sportswear multiples and overtaken JJB Sports as leader in footings of turnover. Its policy of heavy discounting of new manners by taking trade names and of best-selling reproduction points has proved a major challenge to the concern theoretical accounts of viing sportswear retail merchants and even the trade names themselves.

Sports Goods Retailing – UK – September 2005The UK market for athleticss goods was deserving an estimated ?5. 016 million including VAT in 2004. Demand has increased by 18. 2 % since 2000. compared to entire consumer disbursement growing of 20. 3 % over the same period. and entire retail gross revenues growing of 19. 4 % . Thus the market has lagged behind both wider consumer steps. albeit merely marginally.

Several factors have been driving the market in recent old ages. Among the more of import 1s are lower monetary values. the increased manner entreaty of athleticss trade names. greater consciousness of the importance of exercising and a healthy diet. marginally bettering athleticss engagement degrees. rapid enlargement of some relatively new athleticss ironss and a turning Numberss of athleticss superstores. Various less touchable factors have besides influenced disbursement. Surely the aspirational and stylish entreaty of taking trade names has been enhanced by indorsements from a turning set of ‘sports celebrities’ . Top sporting events are a market driver excessively and media coverage is far greater than it used to be. When England won the Rugby Union World Cup in 2003 it sparked an unprecedented demand for their squad shirts. The Euro 2004 football titles in Portugal had a similar consequence. on a much larger graduated table. in hiking demand for England strip. At the clip of composing the England cricket shirt was outselling the football strip. as the national side strives to win the Ashes from Australia for the first clip in two decennaries.

Breeze Technology. Inc.

Breeze is in the concern of commercializing engineering for the athleticss. leisure and diversion markets. Their launch merchandise into the athletic footwear market was a footwear airing engineering applicable to all closed places and boots.

In order to come in the athletic footwear market Breeze carried out a market analysis utilizing the consequences from a major study that the “The Athletic Footwear Association ( AFA ) ” in 1992 to find the determination standards used by consumers when buying athletic footwear. The consequences demonstrate that nine of out of 10 consumers place “comfort. tantrum. and feel” as the most of import features of athletic footwear. Other of import standards identified in the survey include “suit active life-style” . “has public presentation advantages” . and “fashion. ”Based on this information. Breeze carried out a series of Focus group exercises utilizing groups of Americans and Australians. This provided a qualitative appraisal of consumer determination behavior which extended the consequences from the AFA research.

Following this some rival content analysis probe was carried out to place the content in advertizements for footwear. 46 advertizements by 42 industries were evaluated.

Discussions were so held with senior executives at a major US footwear maker who provided entree to the findings of primary research and marker research which confirmed what had been derived from the AFA consequences. focal point groups and the rival content analysis.

It was found that users require comfort. public presentation. manner and value from their footwear ( Value being the ratio of benefits to monetary value ) .


( 1 ) – ESOMAR. ( 2006 ) . ESOMAR Marketing Glossary. [ Online ] . Available signifier: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. esomar. org/index. php/glossary-m. hypertext markup language [ Accessed 15th December 2007 ] .

( 2 ) ¬- Business Wire. ( June 1. 2004 ) . “Price and Selection Are Key Motivators for Where Consumers Purchase Athletic Footwear ; New Vertis Study Identifies Purchasing Trends among Sporting Goods Shoppers” . [ Online ] . FindArticles. com. Available signifier: hypertext transfer protocol: //findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2004_June_1/ai_n6048884 [ Accessed 13th December 2007 ] .

( 3 ) – Harris Interactive SportTainment. ( 2001 ) . “Marketing to the Multitudes: Bettering Existing Customer Loyalty More Important Than Increasing the Customer Base” . [ Online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. harrisinteractive. com/news/printerfriend/index. asp? NewsID=408 [ Accessed 15th December 2007 ] .

( 4 ) – Mintel Group. ( 2006 ) . Sports Fashion – UK – October 2006. [ Online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //academic. mintel. com/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show & A ; /display/id=173674/display/id=241582 [ Accessed 15th December 2007 ] .

( 5 ) – Mintel Group. ( 2005 ) . Sports Goods Retailing – UK – September 2005. [ Online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //academic. mintel. com/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show & A ; /display/id=125583 [ Accessed 15th December 2007 ] .

( 6 ) – Business Resource Software. ( 2007 ) . Inc. Breeze Technology. Inc. [ Online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. businessplans. org/Breeze/Breeze00. hypertext markup language [ Accessed 15th December 2007 ] .

( 7 ) – Malhotra. N. and Briks. D. ( 2006 ) . Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation. 3rd edition. Pearson Education.

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