The relationship between employer and employee or trade brotherhoods is called Industrial Relation ( IR ) . Harmonious relationship is necessary for both employers and employees to safeguard the involvements of both parties of the production. In order to keep good relationship with the employees. the chief maps of every organisation should avoid any difference with them or settle it every bit early as possible so as to guarantee industrial peace and higher productiveness. The chief aim of industrial relation is to keep harmoniums production state of affairs. avoiding industrial agitation for smooth productiveness. Industrialization ; and high industrialisation was possible merely on first-class industrial relation state of affairs. If there is no industrial relation or no relationship between employers and worker. or among the employers. production or productiveness will non come into world.

Bangladesh is non an industrialised state nor does it hold immense natural resources as yet. Peoples could be the lone resource if they could be turned into human resources. Rapid and sustainable industrial development is the mean for the national prosperity. Healthy industrial relation is the lone manner for greater productiveness. and greater productiveness can make more and more investing for industrialisation. In Bangladesh. trade brotherhoods are non good organized. powerful. non backed by self-generated workers support. extremely politicalized. and the members are non efficient plenty to raise voice for the workers. Many of the enterprisers and employers do non believe in industrial relation. instead they like handling workers as the most ignored constituent of production. uses the bad technique of pull offing the leaders instead promoting trade brotherhood for industrial relation. In short. industrial relation state of affairs in Bangladesh is non encouraging.

The People’s Republic of Bangladesh. located in South Asia and surrounding India and Myanmar. was portion of British India until 1947. It became a separate state of Pakistan on 14 August 1947. when the sub-continent was partitioned into two independent autonomous rules. India and Pakistan. Bangladesh broke off from Pakistan and became an independent crowned head province after a bloody release war in 1971.

The history of industrial dealingss system of this state can be traced back to the Trade Union Act. 1926 introduced by British swayers. The chief intent of the Act was to supply for the enrollment of trade brotherhoods and in certain respects. specify the jurisprudence associating to registered trade brotherhoods. But the Act did non incorporate any proviso sing work stoppages. In 1929 the Trade Disputes Act put limitations on work stoppages in public public-service corporation services. The Act provided for the constitution of courts to judge upon the labor differences. In 1947 the Industrial Disputes Act placed the conciliation and adjudication machinery for the colony of industrial differences on a lasting terms. In decennary following divider of India. the so Pakistan authorities largely adopted the colonial bequest with respect to labor Torahs. However. a major development took topographic point in the legal model of industrial dealingss in 1965 when the East Pakistan Trade Unions Act. 1965 was enacted revoking the Trade Unions Act. 1926.

But the Act could non ease healthy growing of trade brotherhoods as it was more restrictive on the freedom of association and right to form. The period between 1947 and 1969 was therefore marked by a host of inhibitory Torahs and witnessed labour agitation and widespread industrial agitation. Subsequently. the Labour Disputes Act. 1965 and Trade Unions Act. 1965 were integrated into one jurisprudence. viz. Industrial Relations Ordinance. 1969. which made commissariats for acknowledgment of corporate bargaining agents for constitution or group of constitutions. Therefore. the Regulation was a landmark development in the development of corporate bargaining in Bangladesh. After the outgrowth of Bangladesh. development of industrial dealingss was strained by infliction of soldierly Torahs. announcement of province of exigency at different times. and announcement of host of other Torahs and policy which inhibited the growing of sound industrial dealingss in Bangladesh.

Since independency of Bangladesh. no major development took topographic point in the history of labour statute law till the passage of the Bangladesh Labour Act. 2006. The Bangladesh Labour Act. 2006 is a major and comprehensive passage sing industrial relation system– partially as a response to demand of stakeholders for bettering regulative model on trade brotherhood and partially by demand for codification of bing labour Torahs in order to avoid overlapping and incompatibilities. It brought some important alterations in industrial relation system.

However. the Act has non been able to convey the desired changed due to its in-built failings. suspension of many labour rights under province of exigency and deficiency of institutional capacity to implement the Torahs. Industrial dealingss ( IR ) are besides concerned with finding of rewards and conditions of employment. IR and human dealingss are clearly two indispensable factors in industry. one depending on the other. . Good industrial dealingss provide the necessary background for human dealingss. In any project. good dealingss between the direction and workers depend upon the grade of common assurance which can be established.

Aims of the Study
Every undertaking has a peculiar purpose. A survey without aim can non make its finish. The chief aim of the survey is to cognize about “Industrial Relations in Bangladesh” . Some other aims of this survey reference in the followers: 1. To cognize about industrial regulations and ordinances of Bangladesh. 2. To cognize current state of affairs of Industrial dealingss in Bangladesh. 3. To happen out the jobs of Industrial dealingss in Bangladesh. 4. To cognize the function of assorted parties like employers. employees. and authorities in keeping industrial dealingss. 5. To research the factors that is responsible for the development of an effectual international system of industrial dealingss.

We have collected informations in the undermentioned ways:
Desk study of the related section.
Other manual information.
Different mention books of the library
Internship study

Industrial Relations in Bangladesh

The history of industrial dealingss system of Bangladesh can be traced back to the Trade Union Act. 1926 introduced by British swayers. The chief intent of the Act was to supply for the enrollment of trade brotherhoods and in certain respects. specify the jurisprudence associating to registered trade brotherhoods. But the Act did non incorporate any proviso sing work stoppages. In 1929 the Trade Disputes Act put limitations on work stoppages in public public-service corporation services. The Act provided for the constitution of courts to judge upon the labor differences. In 1947 the Industrial Disputes Act placed the conciliation and adjudication machinery for the colony of industrial differences on a lasting terms.

Since independency of Bangladesh. no major development took topographic point in the history of labour statute law till the passage of the Bangladesh Labour Act. 2006. The Bangladesh Labour Act. 2006 is a major and comprehensive passage sing industrial relation system partially as a response to demand of stakeholders for bettering regulative model on trade brotherhood and partially by demand for codification of bing labour Torahs in order to avoid overlapping and incompatibilities. It brought some important alterations in industrial relation system. However. the Act has non been able to convey the desired changed due to its in-built failings. suspension of many labour rights under province of exigency and deficiency of institutional capacity to implement the Torahs.

Nature of Industrial Relations in Bangladesh
Industrial dealingss is non limited to merely in simple organisational occupation related footings but in broader societal. political. and economic footings. As they are integrates with each other and can non be separated. We shall depict it briefly now:

I. Social: In society we can see three spares high. in-between and low. This same thing can be seen for the organisations. Now the higher degree direction ever remains out of site of the lower. They merely communicate with the center and in-between communicates with the lower. It has created a large distance among the organisations. Each degree treats their lower degree really severely so the working environment becomes really headlong. AI. Political: In Bangladesh political relations is everyplace. One may happen political relations when they got into the occupation. Then in trade brotherhoods. there is high influence of political relations so the general employees have no religion in it. To happen a work for the company there is no surety to acquire it by sound battle. So in Bangladesh political barriers is the biggest nature. BI. Economic: Bangladesh is low gaining state with a huge sum of population. So we can see some people happening the manner of gaining more by utilizing the inexpensive labour and becomes more reach whereas the hapless becomes poorer. So dealingss between employer & A ; employee becomes like maestro & A ; slave.

A trade brotherhood is an organisation created to better conditions in the workplace. Whether the issue is rewards. ill clip. or medical benefits. trade brotherhoods negotiate with employers on behalf of brotherhood members. When employees and employers are unable to make an understanding. trade brotherhood leading works with employers to negociate a via media. Regardless of the result. all members of the trade brotherhood must follow the agreed upon solution.

Trade brotherhood is an organisation of employees or workers who officially join together to advance. protect. maintain and better their societal. economic. and political power of its members.

Legal Framework of Trade Union
The Constitution of Bangladesh provides the basic legal foundation for formation of organisations by workers and employers. The chief statutory model for such organisations is the Bangladesh Labor Act 2006. The Act recognizes both right of workers to fall in trade brotherhoods and the right of employers to fall in associations. Section 176 of the Bangladesh Labor Act 2006 provides that every worker has the right to represent a trade brotherhood and to fall in an association of their choosing. In order to be registered. a trade brotherhood must hold a minimal rank of 30 per cent of the entire figure of workers employed in any constitution or group of constitutions in which it is formed. Harmonizing to subdivision 183 of the Act. a group of constitutions shall be deemed to be one constitution for the intent of formation of trade brotherhood. As a demand of formation of trade brotherhood. the Act prescribes election of officers by the general organic structure of trade brotherhood and provides that the term of officer shall non transcend two old ages upon his election or re-election.

The Act besides allows trade brotherhood in civil air power sector but in footings of per centum of workers. it requires that half of the entire figure of workers. Procedure of Registration and Cancellation of Registration of Trade Union The Bangladesh Labor Act 2006 provides for enrollment of trade brotherhoods with a position to rendering lawful organisation of labour to enable corporate bargaining. Through its enrollment. the trade brotherhood acquires certain benefits including legal being as an entity separate from its members. However. certification of enrollment is issued by the Director of Labor. Registration of trade brotherhood confers a legal being as an entity separate from its members. Harmonizing to subdivision 194 ( 1 ) . a registered trade brotherhood is a statutory organic structure with legal entity and accordingly it can have belongings. enter into contract. Sue and be sued by the name in which it is registered. Section 192 provides that no trade brotherhood. which is unregistered or whose enrollment has been cancelled shall work as a trade brotherhood. Functions of Trade Union

Trade brotherhoods work to better the work environment and wages of brotherhood members. The leaders of the trade brotherhood negotiate with employers on behalf of the full brotherhood for pay additions. more holiday clip. better working hours and benefits. Any determinations agreed upon by the brotherhood leading and employers are adhering on all brotherhood members. However. trade brotherhoods meet on a regular basis to discourse ailments and concerns. every bit good as to vote on these determinations prior to dialogues. If dialogues stall. many trade brotherhoods reserve the right to strike. Features of trade brotherhood in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is an agricultural state and besides developing state. So here worker are available working in the assorted industry. As a consequence many trade brotherhoods are established. These trade brotherhoods has some characteristics. these are discussed below: • Leaderships and members of the trade brotherhood are non good educated. • Trade brotherhood plays a great function in the motion of democracy. • Most of the trade brotherhoods are financially weak.

• Maximum trade brotherhoods are complecting with political parties.
• Effective. efficient. honest leaders are absent in trade brotherhood.
• Leaders of trade brotherhoods are self-oriented.
• Discriminatory behaviour is observed in the trade brotherhoods. Features of Trade Union in Bangladesh

1. Membership

The rate of workers’ engagement in trade brotherhood of 20 million workers. merely 2 million were members of trade brotherhood.

2. Plant degree trade brotherhood

Trade brotherhood in Bangladesh are chiefly works degree.
3. Political association

Majority of the trade brotherhood in Bangladesh have links labour federation who are affiliated to different political parties.

4. Outside leading

Outside leaders those are non worker besides play a critical function in brotherhood leading at assorted degree.

5. Multiplicity of trade unionisms

Trade brotherhood in Bangladesh are fragmented in different political political orientations which create multiple unionisms.

6. Size of brotherhood

The size of the trade brotherhood in Bangladesh is really little. the theoretical account group of the brotherhood had rank runing from 101 to 500 ( about 33 % ) with mean rank per brotherhood is about 359.

Structure of Trade Unions

Trade brotherhoods in Bangladesh may be divided into three classs: foremost. basic trade brotherhood – a primary organisation of workers at the working topographic point. Normally. the trade brotherhoods at works degree are termed basic brotherhoods. Trade brotherhood federation are the organic structure of brotherhoods from the same industrial sector. Section 200 ( 1 ) of the Act provides that any two or more registered trade brotherhoods formed in constitution which are engaged in or transporting on the same industry may represent federation by put to deathing an instrument of federation and the apply for the enrollment of the federation.

Again. federation of trade brotherhoods can be two types: industrial federation and national federation. Industrial federation can be composed of a figure of basic trade brotherhoods related to the same type of industry. such as jute workers federation. fabric workers federation. and garments workers federations.

National Federation is a federation of basic brotherhoods irrespective of occupation classs. A national federation may be constituted of two or more basic trade brotherhoods irrespectively of the trade. A national federation by and large extends forming and consultative services to its attached endeavor brotherhoods federations.

New Role for Trade Union Organizations

The function of trade brotherhood is altering to run into the demands of a altering society and labour wellbeing. Apart from their traditional function of intercession through corporate bargaining. the trade brotherhoods of Bangladesh are besides being organized to present societal duologue and model understanding system ; address societal issues in the work force such as gender inequality. HIV/AIDS. kid labour and environmental and occupational jeopardies in the community.

Problems of Trade Union in Bangladesh:

1 Lack of consciousness: The major Numberss of members of trade brotherhood are non really wholly cognizant about their legal rights and responsibilities. That is the ground they don’t know the favourable features of trade brotherhoods. 2 Lack of Unity: Trade brotherhood is really a integrity of the labour force for guaranting their demand. But in Bangladesh trade brotherhoods are separated for political influence. 3 Lack of cognition: In our state the degree of workers is non decently educated. They don’t have adequate cognition about their rights and responsibilities. In this instance trade brotherhood could be helpful really much to develop workers KSA. but the whole degree of workers is lack in cognition. 4 Political influence: The most powerful and deep affecting barrier for the growing of trade brotherhood of Bangladesh is its political environment.

Most of the trade brotherhoods of Bangladesh are non free from the political influence. 5 Division of trade brotherhood: Bangladesh is a state where every organisation has more trade brotherhoods in name merely. Those brotherhoods are driven by the political leaders of assorted political parties. So a immense truth of job arises in the organisations. . 6. Fiscal Problems: The fiscal place of the trade brotherhoods is weak because their mean annual income is really low and unequal. The subscription rates are really low. Under conditions of multiplicity of brotherhoods. a brotherhood interested in increasing its rank figures keeps the subscription rate unduly low

Corporate Bargaining is the dialogue between representatives of direction and workers to bring forth a written understanding covering footings and conditions of employment. It is basically a via media and reconciliation of opposing force per unit areas of two societal groups who have adequate common involvements to work together. Pressures at the bargaining tabular array normally are framed in economic and proficient footings. Bargaining is truly a societal procedure. Corporate Bargaining Agent ( CBA ) in relation to an constitution or group of constitutions means the trade brotherhood of workers or federation of trade brotherhoods which. under chapter XIII. is the agent of the workers in the constitution. or group of constitutions in the affair of jointly dickering. Legal Framework of CB

Corporate Bargaining was foremost introduced in Bangladesh under the model of Industrial Relations Ordinance. 1969 ( passed on 13 November 1969 ) . This Ordinance emphasized sound industrial relation. through the protection of the workers right to merchandise unionism and corporate bargaining. The legal model on corporate bargaining is governed by the commissariats of the Labor Act 2006. Harmonizing to subdivision 209 and 210 of the Act corporate bargaining is the first measure in the industrial difference colony mechanism.

Functions of CBA

Undertake corporate bargaining with the employer on affairs connected with employment. non-employment. footings of employment and conditions of work. Represent all or any of the workingmans in any work proceedings. Give notice of work stoppage harmonizing to the commissariats of the chapter. Nominate representatives of worker on the Board of Trustees of any public assistance establishments or provident financess. and of the workers participation fund established under Chapter XV. Undertake legal proceedings on behalf of individual or corporate workers.

Corporate Bargaining Activities
Corporate bargaining is the oldest signifier of labour direction dialogue in the industrial dealingss in Bangladesh. Because of the philosophy of multiple brotherhood systems the pattern has been developed to choose a corporate bargaining agent ( CBA ) from among the registered brotherhoods in an endeavor or group of endeavors to set about corporate bargaining with the employer on behalf of the workers in that endeavor or group of endeavors. The chief activities of CBA are as follows: 1. To set about corporate bargaining with the employer or employees on affairs connected with employment. non-employment. footings of employment or the conditions of work ; 2. To stand for all or any of the workingmans in. any proceedings ; 3. To give notice of and declare a work stoppage in conformity with the commissariats of jurisprudence. 4. To nominate representatives of workingmans on the board of legal guardians of any public assistance in establishment or provident fund and of the workers’ engagement fund. Issues Frequently Negotiated in CB in Bangladesh

Some of the of import deal able countries are –

1. Fiscal affairs: 40 % – 50 % ( rewards. payments. promotions… )

2. Personnel & A ; disciplinary affairs: 25 % – 30 % ( occupation security. insurance and benefits… )

3. Labor public assistance affairs: 30 % ( work tools. techniques and patterns. wellness and safety… )

4. Administrative affairs: 5 % – 6 % ( brotherhood acknowledgment. activities. direction rights… )

5. Assorted issue: 3 % ( incentive. work norms. working conditions … )

Factors Suppressing the Effectiveness of CB in Bangladesh

1. Casual attitude of the parties toward CB

2. Multiple trade unionism

3. Poor trade brotherhood leading

4. Lack of preparation and instruction about CB

5. Unrealistic demand

6. Problem to choosing exclusive CBA

7. Rigid base taken by the parties

8. Intervention by the authorities and political parties

9. Authoritarian attitude of direction

10. Common misgiving of the parties

11. Easy handiness to adjudication

Practical Problems associating to CBA:
As we know that there is no equal terms between employers & A ; employee in Bangladesh. The grounds ( i. e. practical jobs ) for weak bargaining place of workers are given below: ? The frequent efforts by the governing party ( i. e. employers ) . to purchase off or victimized trade brotherhood leaders by offering payoff to them. ? The unfavourable or authority attitude of the direction. ? A weak industrial based and absence of existent democratic pattern in Bangladesh. ? Politicization of TU. inter and intra rival range. self-interest of trade brotherhood leaders. absence of experient TU Leaders at works degree etc. Workers Involvement and Participation

Workers engagement is the most debated issues now-a-days. Nowhere has the construct been defined clearly because it has come to be associated with changing patterns in different states. The signifier and intension of the term besides vary harmonizing to the societal and economic ends of a peculiar state. It means different things to different people. Workers engagement Management is considered as a mechanism where workers have a say in the determination doing procedure of an endeavor. Assorted participative Committees and Their Functions

The being of assorted participative commissions is observed in different of the universe including Bangladesh. The commissions and their maps are stated bellow:

1 ) Works commissions: The map of this commission are promote public assistance installations. safety of workers. better work environment. production. productiveness affair. fix production mark and accomplishments. see working status. care of subject at work degrees. occupation redesign etc.

2 ) Joint commission: The maps of this commission are advancing effectual engagement of workers and direction in critical affairs of production. productiveness. cost consciousness. working status etc.

3 ) Safety commission: The maps of this commission are consider job connected with accident. suggest preventative steps. frame safety regulations. advance safety consciousness. urge steps for the betterment of medical services. safety policy preparation and reappraisal.

4 ) Sport commission: The maps of this commission are organized athleticss and civilization activities. running of athleticss nine etc.

5 ) Joint production commission: The maps of this commission are betterment of productiveness. program and accomplish production marks. better methods and layout procedure.

6 ) Canteen commission: The maps of this commission are direction of canteen. fix monetary values of nutrient points. forming the bill of fare etc.

7 ) Joint direction council: The maps of this commission are general public assistance of workers. preparation and development policies eliminate wastes etc.

8 ) Grievance commission: The maps of this commission are disposing of grudges. better industrial dealingss etc.

9 ) House allotment commission: The maps of this commission are allocation of company houses. the rate of house rent tax write-off. repairing of houses etc.

Factors Responsible for Work Participation Management Failure in Bangladesh

1. Lack of Supportive Climate in the organisation

2. Workers fear of Victimization by the direction

3. Management fright of giving up power

4. Lack of equal instruction of work participative direction

5. Lack of desire of workers to take part

6. Attitude of trade brotherhood

7. Multiplicity of brotherhood IndustriaIl Action

The Legal Framework of Industrial Action in Bangladesh

The right to strike is non explicitly set out in any International Labor Organization Convention or Recommendation ; although it’s Committee on Freedom of Association declared in 1952 that work stoppage action is one of the principal agencies by which workers and their association may lawfully advance and specify their economic and societal involvement. In Bangladesh. Industrial Relation Act. 2004. the Industrial Relations Ordinance 1969. provide commissariats for industrial actions such as work stoppage. lock out. It is utile to see first industrial difference and trade brotherhood unsusceptibilities. which are cardinal to the legal position of industrial action and so the legal ordinance of picketing and dismissal of strikers.

Causes of Industrial Action in Bangladesh

There are several causes of industrial action in Bangladesh. Specifically economic. political. societal. legal. proficient causes are responsible for industrial action in Bangladesh.

•Economical causes:

Disputes arise on the history of economic factors such as: rewards. fillip. allowances. benefits. working status. unfair dismissal. and retrenchment of workers. In Bangladesh most of action are caused for it.

•Political causes:

Here political leaders have used brotherhoods as a powerful arms to construct tensenesss inside a works with a position to fulfilling their ain private terminals on a figure of occasions particularly in organized period topographic points like Narayangonj. Tongi. Tejgaon. etc.

•Social causes:

On many occasions. community. environment force per unit areas and concerns besides instigate the workers to take affairs to street. The affair are for building of route. span. establishment infirmary. school etc. in the community.

Technological causes:

The technological causes are responsible the differences are alterations in methods of production. implishment of new engineering. utilizing of new machineries.

•Market status:

Due to alter in the market status differences may originate. The grounds are due to alter in the monetary value. alteration in populating criterion. rising prices etc.

•Legal causes:

This includes all legal causes which are mentioned and described by the statute law. Such as non supplying appropriate compensation. dispatching workers illicitly. non to make organize merchandise brotherhood as the jurisprudence.

Forms of Industrial Actions Practiced in Bangladesh
There are two types of signifiers of industrial action practiced by employees and employers in Bangladesh. Both classs express discontent. their difference lies in the purpose behind them. 1 ) Unorganized single signifiers of action

Employee turnover
Legal action
2 ) Organized corporate action:
I ) Through direction
Unilateral infliction
Hire replacing
Closing of plants
two ) Through employees
Work prohibitions
Benefits of Industrial Disputes
It must be remembered that industrial struggle can convey a assortment of benefits. These include: It provides an chance for workers to show their dissatisfaction. Workers can convey issues to the attending of direction before any long-run harm is done. New methods of making things. whether this involves the decision-making procedure or alterations in production techniques. can be introduced during dialogues. Productiveness can be increased through alterations in work and direction patterns. New communicating lines can be opened between workers and direction. Health and safety issues can be addressed.

The Labor Act 2006 foresees that a worker can raise a difference before the Labor Court on the land of misdemeanor of any right conferred by the Bangladesh Labor Act 2006. There is no alternate mechanism for colony of single differences other than by the intercession of the Court. Individual differences can non be taken to tribunal by the CBA as industrial differences. Although this issue has been raised several times before the Supreme Court of Bangladesh the Court has made it clear that single differences can non be entertained by the Labor Court as an industrial difference. Dispute Settlement Machinery

The thought underlying the commissariats of the Bangladesh Labor Act. 2006 is to settle industrial difference and to advance industrial peace and set up a harmonious and affable relationship between labour and capital by agencies of conciliation. mediation and adjudication. Bipartite dialogue and conciliation are two of import methods of colony of industrial differences because they provide evidences for amicable colony in a free and unchained environment. As a 3rd party the make-peaces try to assist the conflicting parties resolve their differences amicably and restore good relationship between the controversialists. Bipartite Negotiation

Conciliation-Tripartite Negotiation
Paths of Dispute colony in Bangladesh

The industrial relation regulation has provided for non-judicial and mechanism to decide industrial & A ; other differences. There are three different paths by and large used in Bangladesh for industrial differences declaration. The first paths is the non-judicial mediation procedure which includes negation. conciliation & A ; arbitration. The 2nd paths is non-judicial via judicial paths which includes dialogue. conciliation & A ; so application to the labour tribunal up until the appellant division. The 3rd path is wholly judicial get downing with the labour tribunal & A ; stoping in the appellant division.

1. Negotiation & gt ; conciliation & gt ; arbitration

2. Negotiation & gt ; conciliation & gt ; labour tribunal & gt ; labour appellate tribunal & gt ; high tribunal & gt ; appellant division

3. Labor tribunal & gt ; labour appellate tribunal & gt ; high tribunal & gt ; appellant division

Employee grudge refers to the dissatisfaction of an employee with what he expects from the company and its direction. A company has to supply an employee with a safe working environment. realistic occupation prevue. equal compensation. regard etc. Different Forms of Grievance in Bangladesh

There are many different sorts of grudges. and normally in Nestle company determines few type of grudge to register harmonizing to whom is affected in different degrees and workplace: 1. Individual Grudge: Most grudges affect one single member and are hence signed by them. Even by registering an single grudge. operation is assisting all members by supporting the understanding and the rights of all those covered by the understanding. 2. Group Grievance: Several members have been affected in the same manner at the same clip. so a grudge is filed for the full group. For illustration. direction changes the start clip for all day-shift workers.

3. Factual Grudge: when an employee is dissatisfied with his occupation. for factual and echt grounds like a breach of term of employment or any other grounds that are clearly attributed to the direction. he is said to hold a factual grudge therefore. factual grudge arise when the legitimate demands are unrealized. The job that he has is existent and non practical. 4. Policy Grudge: Here the brotherhood and non the person file the grudge. This occurs when direction is either in misdemeanor of the corporate understanding or falsely interprets it. which may impact all members in the hereafter. For illustration. direction assigns –a displacement “day worker with respect to senior status. Effectss of Grudge

1. It is a job work outing machinery.

2. For direction it is a job sensor.

3. A channel through which employees present their grudges.

4. It ensures proper handling of grudges.

5. A method which helps employees to acquire alleviation from dissatisfaction.

6. Brings uniformity in grudge handling.

7. Develops assurance in employees.

Grievance Handling Procedure

Identify Grudge:

Common grudges

Negative response to grievance

Consequences of botching grudges

Managing grudge efficaciously

Companies –handling grudge process and what you need to make

A grudge should be redressed every bit shortly as P placing an employee’s grudge adopted for placing. The m grudges are: Open-door policy. Opinion Surveys. Gripe Box System and Exit Interview.

Open-door Policy:

In this method. employees are requested to subject their grudges to their higher-ups and the jobs are discussed and sorted out.

Opinion Surveies:

In this method. the employees express their grudges to individuals who are non their higher-ups. The individuality of the employee is non disclosed.

Gripe Box System:

The employees can drop their ailments in the ailment box. The employee need non unwrap his individuality if he so desires.

Exit Interview:

An employee may go forth an organisation due to dissatisfaction or on acquiring better employment. The information collected in an issue interview will be more dependable as the employee can show his sentiment more freely and honestly which usually an employee may non make.

Discipline connotes a province of order in an organisation. It besides means conformity with the recognized order or proper grasp of the hierarchical-superior-subordinate-relationship. The constructs of subject emerge in a work state of affairs from the interaction of director and workers in an organisation. Formal and informal regulations and ordinances govern the relationship between a director and workers.

The basic aims of Discipline:

1. Keep peace and order in industry.
2. Promote constructive unfavorable judgment at all degrees of direction and employment.
3. Avoid work arrest in industry
4. Procure the colony of differences and grudges by a reciprocally agreed process
5. Avoiding judicial proceedings
6. Facilitate a free growing of trade brotherhoods
7. Extinguish all signifiers of coercion. bullying and misdemeanors of regulations and ordinances regulating industrial dealingss.


The service of an employee can be terminated by manner of:

1 ) Discharge

Discharge means the expiration of service of worker by the employer for grounds of physical or mental incapacity

2 ) Discharge simpliciter

Discharge simpliciter means the terminate assurance and does needfully connote any act of misconduct

3 ) Judgment of dismissal

Judgment of dismissal means the expiration of services of a worker by the employer for misconduct

Procedure of Discharge and Dismissal

1. Show cause notice and/or charge-sheet

2. Giving transcript to the worker

3. Domestic question into charge and the right of hearing of the worker concerned

4. Order of penalty and its blessing

5. Suspension of the worker pending enquiry

The industrial relation system is pre-dominantly confrontational in nature instead than cooperative in Bangladesh. It is characterized by the pre-dominant place of informal economic system. disconnected brotherhoods. weak labour establishments. deficiency of enforcement of labour Torahs and struggle ridden employer-employee dealingss. Although in recent times the rate of unionisation has increased in the RMG sector. merchandise brotherhood association is low in Bangladesh compared to many other developing states. The chief grounds for this are the autumn in employment in antecedently extremely organized sectors. rise of the service sector and increasing flexible types of employment relationships.

The publicity of independent trade brotherhoods and corporate bargaining can lend to political and societal stableness and accordingly make more favourable clime for foreign investing. Trade brotherhoods have an of import function to play in settling differences between workers and direction over rewards by manner of corporate bargaining. However. empirical information show that the experience is far from satisfactory. In the instance of public sector endeavors corporate bargaining is really limited as the authorities frequently determines the pay degrees for workers in a figure of sectors.


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